Pope Gregory IX is shown excommunicating Emperor Frederick II. Although the Catholics invented the practice of excommunication to deal with severe sins, other religious groups have also adopted it for their own purposes.

(RNS1-JUNE 17) Pope Gregory IX is shown excommunicating Emperor Frederick II. Although the Catholics invented the practice of excommunication to deal with severe sins, other religious groups have also adopted it for their own purposes. For use with RNS-EXCOMMUNICATION, transmitted June 17, 2014. Public domain image

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