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Pope Gregory IX is shown excommunicating Emperor Frederick II. Although the Catholics invented the practice of excommunication to deal with severe sins, other religious groups have also adopted it for their own purposes.

T.J. Thomson

T.J. Thomson

T.J. Thomson is an award-winning photojournalist, designer, and writer. He is the 2013 recipient of the Great Plains Journalism Awards' Student Photographer of the Year title and his work has been published by the Associated Press, The Washington Post, The Huffington Post and The Omaha World-Herald, among others. He is pursuing a doctoral degree in visual communication at the Missouri School of Journalism and has worked for Religion News since 2013.

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